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History Events on September 23

Battle of Blore Heath
The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.


Thomas Cook Group
The British travel company, Thomas Cook Group, declares bankruptcy, leaving employees without jobs and 600,000 customers stranded abroad. Hotels throughout the world are stuck with £3.5 million (U.S. $4.3 million) in unpaid bills.


American Revolution
American Revolution: John Paul Jones, naval commander of the United States, on board the USS Bonhomme Richard, wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.


Urbain Le Verrier
Astronomers Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams and Johann Gottfried Galle collaborate on the discovery of Neptune.


Gulf Air Flight 771
Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board.


Bob Marley
Bob Marley plays what would be the last concert of his life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.


Battle of San Juan de Ulúa (1568)
Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.


Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the United Nations.


Unification of Saudi Arabia
The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.


Korean War
Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.


Earle Ovington
Pilot Earle Ovington makes the first official airmail delivery in America under the authority of the United States Post Office Department


Roland Garros (aviator)
Roland Garros of France becomes the first to fly in an airplane across the Mediterranean (from St. Raphael in France to Bizerte, Tunisia).


John André
American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides.


Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.


Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.


Battle of Arnemuiden
The Battle of Arnemuiden, in which a French force defeats the English, is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.


Second Anglo-Maratha War
Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.


Grito de Lares
Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule.


Pope Callixtus II
Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.


World War II
World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.


Jim Deshaies
Houston Astros' Jim Deshaies sets a record, striking out the first eight batters he faces against the Los Angeles Dodgers.


Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden
Norway and Sweden sign the "Karlstad treaty", peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.


Munich Agreement
The Czechoslovak army is mobilized in response to the Munich Agreement.


Hurricane Jeanne
Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides.


Kauhajoki school shooting
Matti Saari kills ten people before committing suicide.


The Phantom of the Opera
The novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra (The Phantom of the Opera), by Gaston Leroux, is published as a serialization in Le Gaulois.


Italian Social Republic
World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.


Siege of Tripolitsa
Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence.


The first public version of the web browser Mozilla Firefox ("Phoenix 0.1") is released.
Argentine general election: Juan Perón returns to power in Argentina.
The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts opens in New York City.
The American Asiatic Squadron destroys a Filipino battery at the Battle of Olongapo.
The Knickerbockers Baseball Club, the first baseball team to play under the modern rules, is founded in New York.
The first commencement exercises occur at Harvard College.
The Merchant Royal, carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold (worth over £1 billion today), is lost at sea off Land's End.
The Battle of Kherlen is the second significant victory over Ming dynasty China by the Mongols since 1368.