History Events on September 23
The Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Wars of the Roses, is won by the Yorkists.
The British travel company, Thomas Cook Group, declares bankruptcy, leaving employees without jobs and 600,000 customers stranded abroad. Hotels throughout the world are stuck with £3.5 million (U.S. $4.3 million) in unpaid bills.
American Revolution: John Paul Jones, naval commander of the United States, on board the USS Bonhomme Richard, wins the Battle of Flamborough Head.
Astronomers Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams and Johann Gottfried Galle collaborate on the discovery of Neptune.
Gulf Air Flight 771 is destroyed by a bomb, killing all 117 people on board.
Bob Marley plays what would be the last concert of his life in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet, under the command of John Hawkins, at the Battle of San Juan de Ulúa near Veracruz.
Saint Kitts and Nevis joins the United Nations.
The unification of Saudi Arabia is completed.
Korean War: The Battle of Hill 282 is the first US friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.
Pilot Earle Ovington makes the first official airmail delivery in America under the authority of the United States Post Office Department
Roland Garros of France becomes the first to fly in an airplane across the Mediterranean (from St. Raphael in France to Bizerte, Tunisia).
American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides.
Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest of the United States.
Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) is founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda.
The Battle of Arnemuiden, in which a French force defeats the English, is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.
Second Anglo-Maratha War: The Battle of Assaye is fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India.
Grito de Lares ("Lares Revolt") occurs in Puerto Rico against Spanish rule.
Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the Concordat of Worms to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.
World War II: The Matanikau action on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.
Houston Astros' Jim Deshaies sets a record, striking out the first eight batters he faces against the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Norway and Sweden sign the "Karlstad treaty", peacefully dissolving the Union between the two countries.
The Czechoslovak army is mobilized in response to the Munich Agreement.
Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after Hurricane Jeanne produces massive flooding and mudslides.
Matti Saari kills ten people before committing suicide.
The novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra (The Phantom of the Opera), by Gaston Leroux, is published as a serialization in Le Gaulois.
World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.
Tripolitsa, Greece, is captured by Greek rebels during the Greek War of Independence.