History Events on November 16
Greek War of Independence: The London Protocol entails the creation of an autonomous Greek state under Ottoman suzerainty, encompassing the Morea and the Cyclades.
Canadian rebel leader of the Métis and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel is executed for treason.
U.S. President Richard Nixon signs the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law, authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline.
In the first open election in more than a decade, voters in Pakistan elect populist candidate Benazir Bhutto to be Prime Minister of Pakistan.
LSD is first synthesized by Albert Hofmann from ergotamine at the Sandoz Laboratories in Basel.
The Prussian heir apparent, Frederick William, becomes King of Prussia as Frederick William III.
David Livingstone becomes the first European to see the Victoria Falls in what is now Zambia-Zimbabwe.
The Hoxne Hoard is discovered by metal detectorist Eric Lawes in Hoxne, Suffolk.
World War II: Operation Queen, the costly Allied thrust to the Rur, is launched.
Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Schöngrabern: Russian forces under Pyotr Bagration delay the pursuit by French troops under Joachim Murat.
After nearly 18 years of incarceration, the People's Republic of China releases Wei Jingsheng, a pro-democracy dissident, from jail for medical reasons.
American Revolution: The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognize the independence of the United States.
An auto-da-fé, held in the Brasero de la Dehesa outside of Ávila, concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia with the public execution of several Jewish and converso suspects.
UNESCO is founded.
Skylab program: NASA launches Skylab 4 with a crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral, Florida for an 84-day mission.
The Holocaust: In occupied Poland, the Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
Second relief of Lucknow: Twenty-four Victoria Crosses are awarded, the most in a single day.
French Revolution: Ninety dissident Roman Catholic priests are executed by drowning at Nantes.
Emperor Li Jing sends a Southern Tang expeditionary force of 10,000 men under Bian Hao to conquer Chu. Li Jing removes the ruling family to his own capital in Nanjing, ending the Chu Kingdom.
The United States and the Soviet Union establish formal diplomatic relations.
The first line of Bucharest Metro (Line M1) is opened from Timpuri Noi to Sem?n?toarea in Bucharest, Romania.
English engineer John Ambrose Fleming receives a patent for the thermionic valve (vacuum tube).
Indian Territory and Oklahoma Territory join to form Oklahoma, which is admitted as the 46th U.S. state.
The English astronomer John Russell Hind discovers the asteroid 22 Kalliope.
World War II: In response to the leveling of Coventry by the German Luftwaffe two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg.
Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa at the Battle of Cajamarca.
Justinian I, who was an Eastern Roman (Byzantine) emperor in Constantinople, approves and publishes the second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus
The Federal Reserve Bank of the United States officially opens.
American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units capture Fort Washington from the Patriots.
World War II: Düren, Germany, is destroyed by Allied bombers.
Cunard Line's RMS Mauretania, sister ship of RMS Lusitania, sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England, to New York City.
American Civil War: Battle of Campbell's Station near Knoxville, Tennessee: Confederate troops unsuccessfully attack Union forces.