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History Events on August 13

Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) established as a public company in Germany.


Maurice (emperor)
Maurice becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.


Justinian I
Emperor Justinian I rewards Liberius for his long and distinguished service in the Pragmatic Sanction, granting him extensive estates in Italy.


Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Shanghai begins.


Union of Brittany and France
Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany is absorbed into the Kingdom of France.


25th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry Regiment are accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all are later dishonorably discharged. (Their records were later restored to reflect honorable discharges but there were no financial settlements.)


Democratic Republic of the Congo
One hundred fifty-six Congolese Tutsi refugees are massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.


Battle of Mišar
Battle of Mišar during the Serbian Revolution begins. The battle will end two days later, with a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans.


Carl Gustav Witt
Carl Gustav Witt discovers 433 Eros, the first near-Earth asteroid to be found.


War of the League of Cambrai
The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis I of France recognizes Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, recognizes Francis's claim to Milan.


Hartford, Connecticut
William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut is granted United States Patent Number 408,709 for "Coin-controlled apparatus for telephones."


Eugene Reybold
Major General Eugene Reybold of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorizes the construction of facilities that would house the "Development of Substitute Materials" project, better known as the Manhattan Project.


Cold War
Cold War: East Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants' attempts to escape to the West, and construction of the Berlin Wall is started.


War of the Spanish Succession
War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Blenheim: English and Imperial forces are victorious over French and Bavarian troops.


Glacier National Park (U.S.)
Two young women became the first fatal victims of grizzly bear attacks in the 57-year history of Montana's Glacier National Park in separate incidents.


Stainless steel
First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.


Louis XIII
The French king Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu as prime minister.


World War II
World War II: German troops begin the pillage and razing of Anogeia in Crete that would continue until September 5.


Apollo 11
The Apollo 11 astronauts enjoy a ticker tape parade in New York City. That evening, at a state dinner in Los Angeles, they are awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President Richard Nixon.


Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation
Radio Pakistan broadcasts the "Qaum? Tar?na", the national anthem of Pakistan for the first time.


Michael Servetus
Michael Servetus is arrested by John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland as a heretic.


Central African Republic
The Central African Republic declares independence from France.


United States Marine Corps
Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha May Johnson is the first woman to enlist.


George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle
Colonel George Monck of the English Army forms Monck's Regiment of Foot, which will later become the Coldstream Guards.


Russo-Georgian War
Russo-Georgian War: Russian units occupy the Georgian city of Gori.


Spanish-American War
Spanish-American War: Spanish and American forces engage in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.


Alexandros Panagoulis
Alexandros Panagoulis attempts to assassinate the Greek dictator Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos in Varkiza, Athens.


1868 Arica earthquake
The 8.5-9.0 Mw? Arica earthquake struck southern Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), causing 25,000+ deaths and a destructive basin wide tsunami that affected Hawaii and New Zealand.


American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War: The Royal Navy defeats the Penobscot Expedition with the most significant loss of United States naval forces prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.


Fall of Tenochtitlan
After an extended siege, forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés capture Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc and conquer the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.


Polish-Soviet War
Polish-Soviet War: The Battle of Warsaw begins and will last till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.


Buddhist monks from Kyoto, Japan's Enryaku-ji temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout in what will be known as the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance. (Traditional Japanese date: 27th day of the 7th month of the 5th year of the Tenbun (??) era).


At least 76 people are killed and 212 others are wounded in a truck bombing in Baghdad, Iraq.
A mainland Chinese fishing boat Min Ping Yu No. 5202 is hit by a Taiwan's naval vessel and sinks in a repatriation operation of mainland Chinese illegal immigrants, resulting in 21 deaths. This is the second tragedy less than a month after Min Ping Yu No. 5540 incident.
One hundred fifty Palestinians in Beirut are killed in a terrorist attack during the second phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
Members of the British National Front (NF) clash with anti-NF demonstrators in Lewisham, London, resulting in 214 arrests and at least 111 injuries.
Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans are hanged for the murder of John Alan West becoming the last people executed in the United Kingdom.
Norwegians vote to end the union with Sweden.
The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London, England.
King Louis XVI of France is formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people.
Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.
Raniero is elected as Pope Paschal II.
Count Reginar I of Hainault rises against Zwentibold of Lotharingia and slays him near present-day Susteren.
John I becomes the new Pope after the death of Pope Hormisdas.
Octavian holds the first of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.