History Events on August 12
The first testing of a real thermonuclear weapon (not test devices): The Soviet atomic bomb project continues with the detonation of "RDS-6s" (Joe 4), the first Soviet thermonuclear bomb.
The Rhône and Loire départments are created when the former département of Rhône-et-Loire is split into two.
The IBM Personal Computer is released.
The 7.2 Ms? Ionian earthquake shakes the southern Ionian Islands with a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). Between 445 and 800 people are killed.
Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina after the first British invasion.
Battle of Mohács: Charles of Lorraine defeats the Ottoman Empire.
Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed in the Tel al-Zaatar massacre, one of the bloodiest events of the Lebanese Civil War.
Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.
Thirty-nine civilians, including a dozen children, are killed in an explosion at a weapons depot in a rebel-held town in northwest Syria.
Canada, Mexico and the United States announce completion of negotiations for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah. This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade.
Babrra massacre: About 600 unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement are shot dead on the orders of the Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province, Abdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri, on Babrra ground in the Hashtnagar region of Charsadda District, North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan.
Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre: 75 American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.
Treaty of Allahabad is signed. The Treaty marks the political and constitutional involvement and the beginning of Company rule in India.
First engagement of the Battle of Zonchio between Venetian and Ottoman fleets.
At least two massive explosions kill 173 people and injure nearly 800 more in Tianjin, China.
The last quagga dies at the Natura Artis Magistra, a zoo in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema.
World War I: The Battle of Halen a.k.a. Battle of the Silver Helmets a clash between large Belgian and German cavalry formations at Halen, Belgium.
The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ?Iolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.
Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.
Nazi German troops end the week-long Wola massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people are killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.
The Russian Navy submarine Kursk explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea during a military exercise, killing her entire 118-man crew.
Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs 1st antiseptic surgery.
Signature of the Treaty of Nöteborg between Sweden and Novgorod Republic, which regulates the border between the two countries for the first time.
The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise.
Battle of Didgori: The Georgian army under King David IV wins a decisive victory over the famous Seljuk commander Ilghazi.
Christopher Columbus arrives in the Canary Islands on his first voyage to the New World.
South Africa is banned from the Olympic Games due to the country's racist policies.
Sue, the largest and most complete Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton found to date, is discovered by Sue Hendrickson in South Dakota.
World War I: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.
French intervention forces William I of the Netherlands to abandon his attempt to suppress the Belgian Revolution.
Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster.